Firewall Rule Troubleshooting
There are times when a firewall rule does not seem to work as expected. Did it block too many things? Did it allow too many things? Were there no changes at all? Hopefully this will help.
Check the Logs!
Review the filter logs, which can be found under Status > System Logs, on the Firewall tab. The log will show if a packet is blocked, and if so, why. Click the action icon ( or ) at the far left and the rule which caused the packet to be blocked will be displayed. If it says "Default Deny", and the packet should have been allowed, then it did not match any rule in the ruleset.
Be sure that the rules are on the proper interface. Imagine sitting inside of the pfSense box. Sure, it's a little crowded in there, but this can help. Imagine packets flying in from the different networks that the pfSense box ties together. The rules will be placed on the interface they entered from. If a packet is going from the LAN to the pfSense box, then out to the Internet, the rules still enter on the LAN. If a packet is coming from the Internet to the pfSense box, the rule goes on the WAN interface.
Firewall rules are generally processed starting with Floating Rules, then Interface Group rules, then Interface tab rules. See Firewall Rule Processing Order for more details.
If a floating rule with quick checked passed the traffic, then a block rule on an interface would have no chance to match the traffic.
The protocol to which the rule will apply must be specified. Most often, this is TCP, UDP, or ICMP, but other protocols such as ESP, AH, and GRE are regularly encountered when dealing with VPNs. Some confusion arises when a person is really unsure of what protocol to use. A rule set with TCP may not work because the application being filtered may actually use UDP instead. When in doubt, try using TCP/UDP.
When crafting rules for systems involving NAT, remember to use the private IP address as the Destination. This applies for port forwards as well as 1:1 NAT
Source and Destination Ports
When crafting rules, bear in mind that typically only a source or a destination port needs to be specified, and rarely both (honestly the source port rarely matters at all). For example, to allow ssh access to the pfSense box, only specify a destination port of 22. The source port of the client will be random.
If a new rule was made to block some traffic, but packets still get through, there may be an existing state that is allowing the traffic to pass.
To eliminate this as the cause, clear the states (Diagnostics > States, Reset States tab) after altering the rules. If there is an existing state, it will always take precedence over any rules. All of the states may be cleared, or look/filter through the list and find states that apply to the host that will be originating the traffic.
Some things cannot be filtered. Not because pfSense isn't capable, but because they actually do not touch pfSense at all. A prime example of this is trying to keep one system on the LAN from accessing another system on the same LAN. This isn't possible if both clients are on the same subnet and switch; In that case, the routing of packets is handled at the switch level, and pfSense has no knowledge of the traffic. If there is a need to control access in this way, the systems in question should be on separate interfaces on the pfSense firewall. When on different "legs" of the network, their traffic will route through the pfSense system, and full control of the flow can be attained.
Port Forward pass action
When creating a port forward, if the pass action was selected when designating an associated firewall rule, that will bypass firewall rules and pass the traffic directly through without filtering. Change the setting to create an associated rule and then arrange the block rule above the resulting pass rule.
UPnP / NAT-PMP passed traffic
If UPnP/NAT-PMP is enabled and a LAN system opened a port to the world, the traffic may still get in even if it appears it should otherwise be blocked.
If reply traffic such as TCP:A, TCP:SA, or TCP:RA is shown as blocked in the logs, the problem could be asymmetric routing. See Asymmetric Routing and Firewall Rules for more info.
It is also possible that the rules are not being loaded properly. Typically this would result in a notification in the GUI, however some manual tests can be performed to check what is happening.
From the GUI, visit Status > Filter Reload. Press the Reload Filter button and wait to see if the process returns to say "Done." or if it stops. If it stops, for example in a particular package, then there may be a problem with that package.
The ruleset can also be verified from the console or Diagnostics > Command in the Shell Execute box by running:
pfctl -f /tmp/rules.debug
If an error is displayed, it may have an obvious fix, or search for that error to find possible resolutions.